How it Works

Experts from the welding industry answer your questions and explain 'how it works'.

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What is (HICC) Hydrogen Induced Cold Cracking

Hydrogen Induced Cold Cracking occurs in ferritic steel weld zones, it can occur while the weld area cools and it can also be delayed for a period of time upon completion of welding. 

Top 12 Myths and Facts About Third-party Inspection

Capital projects in energy and other sectors use third-party inspection (inspection) to ensure suppliers’ equipment and materials are delivered complete, correct, and on-time (also referred to as source surveillance, vendor surveillance and visual inspection). Inspection is a misunderstood function because of hidden knowledge gaps: there are many pervasive myths about its methods, objectives, and strategies.

How It Works: Why is the Welding of Titanium Difficult?

Titanium is a very unique material, being as strong as some steels but much less dense and exhibiting excellent corrosion resistance.

How It Works: What is a flux in welding and what are the ingredients of fluxes used in the welding of Carbon Steels?

Flux is a mixture of various minerals, chemicals, and alloying materials that primarily protect the molten weld metal from contamination by the oxygen and nitrogen and other contaminants in the atmosphere. The addition of certain chemicals and alloys also help to control arc stability and mechanical properties.


A project may assume that welding procedure specification (WPS) reviews will be addressed by others, later. Not establishing which WPSs should be reviewed, how they should be reviewed, and who should review them inevitably introduces the project risks of inappropriate or incorrect use of WPSs, wasted resources, or both. This fact sheet summarizes the challenges and solutions of reviewing WPSs.

The information provided is intended for general interest, to educate and inform our audience. The CWB and those providing feedback to the questions do not take any responsibility for any omissions or misstatements that could lead to incorrect applications or possible solutions that industry may be facing.

How-It Works content is submitted by Industry experts to the CWB Association and does not necessarily reflect the views of the CWB Group. When testing for CWB Certification or CWB Education, please refer to CWB Education textbooks or CSA standards as the official source of information.