Ultrasonics Level 2

Course Overview

Training Objectives
This course provides the in-depth knowledge in the principles of ultrasonic testing and the fundamentals of engineering, materials and components, such that the technician will be able to:

  • identify the suitability of ultrasonic testing for all materials and inspection applications;
  • develop inspection techniques and prepare procedures that can be followed by a Level 1 technician;
  • document results of the analysis;
  • be familiar with all regulatory codes and specifications for ultrasonic testing and their intent.

Applicable Standards
This course meets the training syllabus requirements of CAN/CGSB-48.9712, ISO 9712 and SNT-TC-1A.

Responsibilities of Level 2 Personnel (as per CGSB)
Level 2 personnel are defined as personnel who perform and/or direct industrial Ultrasonics according to established or recognized procedures and are responsible for the Ultrasonic method or technique used and for the interpretation of the test method.

Course Outline

Basic Theory
  • Sound as energy
  • The source, the medium and the receiver
  • Wave motion
  • The sound frequency spectrum
  • Relationship of velocity, frequency and wavelength
Fundamentals of Pulse Echo
  • Basic operation of a pulse echo system
  • Pulse length and considerations for penetration and resolution requirements
  • Definition of penetration and resolution
  • Pulse frequency / pulse damping
  • Pulse repetition frequency
  • Equipment for pulse echo
  • The piezoelectric phenomenon
  • The "A" scan presentation
  • Basic design and operation of a general purpose ultrasonic flaw detector
  • Basic design and operation of transducers
  • Types of waves and their characteristics
  • Refraction and mode conversion
Advanced Theory
  • Practical consideration of sound velocity
  • Acoustic impedance and practical considerations
  • Practical consideration of pulse repetition frequency (PRF)
  • Behaviour of sound energy at point of reflection and refraction
  • Refraction index
  • Construction of a typical transducer catalogue
  • Transducer technology
  • Beam physics
Applied Ultrasonic Testing
  • Technique development / wrought products; welds; heavy castings
  • Geometrics
  • Review of the basic operation of an immersion testing facility; the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques
  • Focus transducer technology
  • Beam profiling and optimum pressure zones for different focus
  • Calculating minimum water path distance and optimum water path distance
  • Distance Amplitude Correction (DAC)
  • Sizing method for flaws larger than the beam diameter
  • Evaluation of flaws for type of defect
Calibration of Instrumentation
  • Review of the basic requirements of ASTM E317-85 and latest revisions
  • Performance of the following calibrations using the immersion technique: horizontal linearity / vertical linearity; near surface resolution / far surface resolution; sensitivity / signal to noise ratio
  • Documentation of results
  • Disposition procedures for equipment found "out of calibration"
Codes and Specifications
  • Interpretation of codes and specifications in common use

Note: Participants are requested to have a calculator capable of scientific notation. Safety shoes are mandatory for all laboratory work.

This course is offered in partnership with Canadian Institute for Non-Destructive Evaluation (CINDE).

Visit the CINDE website to register.